Potential of Wastewater Reclamation to Reduce Fresh Water Stress in Ho Chi Minh City-Vietnam

N. P. Dan, L.V.Khoa, B. X. Thanh, P. T. Nga, C. Visvanathan



Excess groundwater exploitation for domestic and industrial uses leads to groundwater table drawdown, water quality depletion, salt intrusion and water shortage in dry season in Ho Chi Minh City. Moreover, untreated wastewater discharge and huge fresh water exploitation from industrial, residential and agricultural activities of provinces in the upstream of SaiGon and Dong Nai rivers have resulted in degradation of surface water quality. Water Stress Index (WSI) was used in this study to assess water scarcity of Ho Chi Minh City and the neighboring provinces of Dong Nai river basin. WSI of Dong Nai River basin was 13% in 2010 and increasing to 23% in 2025. This showed that cities of the Dong Nai river basin are under a stress of fresh water use, which may limit local economic development and require the authority of the local area to reduce the use of fresh water resource. The use of reclaimed wastewater for non-portable water demand in HCMC may reduce significantly WSI. Therefore, this paper aims to assess potential of wastewater reusein HCMC in the future.


Keywords: reclaimed water; wastewater reclamation; central wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP); water users; water stress index; raw water exploitation rate